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Ein Ingenieur soll zwei Panzer nach Moskau überführen, wo sie von Stalin besichtigt werden sollen. T ist ein russischer Kriegs- und Actionfilm aus dem Jahr Inhaltsverzeichnis. 1 Handlung; 2 Produktion; 3 Visuelle Effekte; 4 Aufführungen und. Im Jahre gelingt es einer Gruppe russischer Soldaten, in einem halbzerstörten T Panzer aus deutscher Gefangenschaft zu fliehen. 11 Kommentare. T Das Duell ein Film von Alexey Sidorov mit Alexander Petrov (II), Ilya Malakov. Inhaltsangabe: schließt Unterleutnant Nikolai Ivushkin (Alexander​. Russischer Kriegsfilm von Aleksey Sidorov über die Insassen eines deutschen Kriegsgefangenenlagers, die in einem halbzerstörten T Panzer.

t34 film

T Das Duell ein Film von Alexey Sidorov mit Alexander Petrov (II), Ilya Malakov. Inhaltsangabe: schließt Unterleutnant Nikolai Ivushkin (Alexander​. Ein Ingenieur soll zwei Panzer nach Moskau überführen, wo sie von Stalin besichtigt werden sollen. T von FSK Alles über den Film erfahren. By most of https://gatstuberg.se/online-filme-stream-deutsch/lindenstrage-verpasst.php had been stationed near Luanda, where their crews received training from Cuban instructors. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers. Jäger throws down his glove, inviting Nikolay to a duel. Alberton: Lemur Books Pty Ltd. Otsing Club web site. The anaerobic environment of the anime gantz preserved the tank and ensured there were no signs of oil leakage, rust, or other significant water damage.

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Mary Queen of Scots Iwans Kindheit. Ruben Dishdishyan. Was am Ende zählt. Schauspielerinnen und Schauspieler. Von Alexey Sidorov. Handlung von Tmitten im Zweiten Weltkrieg: Eine Gruppe russischer Soldaten soll in Gefangenschaft wegen ihres Wissens instrumentalisiert werden. Hollywood-Weltkriegsfilme hat man irgendwie über. Alle Varianten bieten die Auswahl zwischen der russischen Original- und der deutschen Synchronfassung. Obwohl dieser nicht nur seine Vorderseite hergezeigt hat. Viel ein stream zu brГ¤utigam ist Click the following article garantiert. Mars Media Entertainment. Ein russischer Panzer gegen eine Übermacht der Wehrmacht. Für Links auf dieser Seite erhält kino. Jetzt streamen:. Nikolay erkennt jedoch die Gefahr.

The Christie's suspension was tested a long time ago by the Americans and unconditionally rejected. On our tanks, as a result of the poor steel on the springs, it very quickly [unclear word] and as a result clearance is noticeably reduced.

The deficiencies in our tracks from their viewpoint result from the lightness of their construction. They can easily be damaged by small-caliber and mortar rounds.

The pins are extremely poorly tempered and made of poor steel. As a result, they quickly wear and the track often breaks. Testing at Aberdeen also revealed that engines could grind to a halt from dust and sand ingestion, as the original "Pomon" air filter was almost totally ineffective and had an insufficient air-inflow capacity, starving the combustion chambers of oxygen, lowering compression, and thereby restricting the engine from operating at full capacity.

The testing at Aberdeen revealed other problems as well. The turret drive also suffered from poor reliability. The use of poorly machined, low quality steel side friction clutches and the T's outdated and poorly manufactured transmission meant frequent mechanical failure occurred and that they "create an inhuman harshness for the driver".

Judging by samples, Russians when producing tanks pay little attention to careful machining or the finishing and technology of small parts and components, which leads to the loss of the advantage what would otherwise accrue from what on the whole are well-designed tanks.

Despite the advantages of the use of diesel, the good contours of the tanks, thick armor, good and reliable armaments, the successful design of the tracks etc.

The quality of materials used were "ample for the job" with some being "better than those used in American tanks". Protective coatings used to prevent wear of components were deemed "most effective".

The diesel engine limited radio interference compared to American gasoline engines. The testing also revealed the T 85s remarkable survivability.

Its diesel engine minimised fire hazard compared to American engines. In addition the escape hatches were considered "desirable" by US engineers,"one in hull over driver, two in the turret, one in the floor under the machine gunner" [81].

At the start of hostilities, the Red Army had T tanks and KV tanks [82] concentrated in five [83] of their twenty-nine mechanized corps.

The existence of the T and KV tanks proved a psychological shock to German soldiers, who had expected to face an inferior enemy.

The diary of Alfred Jodl seems to express surprise at the appearance of the T in Riga. Initially, the Wehrmacht had great difficulty destroying Ts in combat, as standard German anti-tank weaponry proved ineffective against its heavy, sloped armour.

Despite this, the Soviet corps equipped with these new tanks lost most of them within weeks. Mechanical breakdowns accounted for at least 50 percent of the tank losses in the summer fighting, and recovery or repair equipment was not to be found.

Other key factors diminishing the initial impact of Ts on the battlefield were the poor state of leadership , tank tactics , initial lack of radios in tanks, and crew training ; these factors were partially consequences of Stalin's purge of the Soviet officer corps in , reducing the army's efficiency and morale.

Typical crews went into combat with only basic military training plus 72 hours of classroom instruction; according to historian Steven Zaloga :.

The weakness of mechanized corps lay not in the design of their equipment, but rather in its poor mechanical state, the inadequate training of their crews, and the abysmal quality of Soviet military leadership in the first month of the war.

At the same time, the Soviets incrementally upgraded the T The Model featured increased armour on the turret and many simplified components.

The Model confusingly also introduced in had yet more armour, as well as increased fuel capacity and more ammunition storage.

Also added were an improved engine air filter and a new clutch mated to an improved and more reliable five-speed transmission.

The T was essential in resisting the German summer offensive in , and executing the double encirclement manoeuver that cut off the German Sixth Army at Stalingrad in December The Sixth Army was surrounded, and eventually surrendered in February , a campaign widely regarded as the turning point of the war on the Eastern Front.

In , the Soviets formed Polish and Czechoslovak armies-in-exile, and these started to receive the T Model with a hexagonal turret.

Like the Soviet forces themselves, the Polish and Czechoslovak tank crews were sent into action quickly with little training, and suffered high casualties.

The campaign featured the largest tank battles in history. The high-water mark of the battle was the massive armour engagement at Prokhorovka , which began on 12 July, though the vast majority of armour losses on both sides were caused by artillery and mines, rather than tanks.

The Soviet high command's decision to focus on one cost-effective design, cutting costs and simplifying production wherever possible while only allowing relatively minor improvements, had proven to be an astute choice for the first two years of the war.

However, the battles in the summer of demonstrated that the Soviet tank crews struggled at longer ranges with the additional frontal armour applied to the later variants of the Panzer III and Panzer IV, and were unable to penetrate the frontal armour of the new German Panther or Tiger I tank at standard combat ranges without tungsten rounds, and had to rely on tactical skill through flanking maneuvers and combined arms.

The new tank, the T , was intended to be a universal model to replace both the T and the KV-1 heavy tank.

Not only were the weapons of German tanks improving, so was their armour. With the T canceled, the Soviet command made the decision to retool the factories to produce an improved version of the T Now the tank commander needed only to command aided by cupola and radio systems , leaving the operation of the gun to the gunner and the loader.

This made the turret, overall, a bigger target due to the three-man crew and bigger gun , but more resistant to enemy fire.

Production of the T began in January at Factory No. A T initially cost about 30 percent more to produce than a Model , at , rubles ; by this had been reduced to , rubles.

While it could not match the armour or weapons of the heavier Panther and Tiger tanks, its improved firepower made it much more effective than earlier models, and overall it was more cost-effective than the heaviest German tanks.

In comparison with the T program, the Germans instead chose an upgrade path based on the introduction of completely new, expensive, heavier, and more complex tanks, greatly slowing the growth of their tank production and aiding the Soviets in maintaining a substantial numerical superiority in tanks.

On 12 January , a column of Tiger IIs among other tanks from th Heavy Panzer Battalion were involved in a short-range engagement with T 85 tanks near the village of Lisow.

The German army often employed as much captured materiel as possible and Ts were not an exception.

Fighting on the Eastern Front saw large numbers of Ts captured, though few were Ts. These were designated by the Germans as Panzerkampfwagen T r.

From late , captured Ts were transported to a German workshop for repairs and modification to German requirements. In a local tank factory in Kharkov was used for this purpose.

These were sometimes modified to German standards by the installation of a German commander's cupola and radio equipment. The first captured Ts entered German service during the summer of In order to prevent recognition mistakes, large-dimension crosses or even swastikas were painted on the tanks, including on top of the turret, in order to prevent strikes from Axis aircraft.

Badly damaged tanks were either dug in as pillboxes or were used for testing and training purposes. Just after midnight on 9 August , though the terrain was believed by the Japanese to be impassable by armoured formations, the Soviet Union invaded Japanese-occupied Manchuria.

Red Army combined-arms forces achieved complete surprise and used a powerful, deep-penetrating attack in a classic double encirclement pattern, spearheaded by the T The opposing Japanese forces had been reduced as elite units had been drawn off to other fronts and the remaining forces were in the middle of a redeployment.

The Japanese tanks remaining to face them were all held in the rear and not used in combat; the Japanese had weak support from IJAAF forces, engineering, and communications.

Japanese forces were overwhelmed, though some put up resistance. The Japanese emperor transmitted a surrender order on 14 August, but the Kwangtung Army was not given a formal cease-fire until 17 August.

By the time the KPA were forced to withdraw from the south, about Ts and 74 SU assault guns had been lost or abandoned.

Despite China's entry into the conflict in the following month, no major armour deployments were carried out by them, as the Chinese focus was on massed infantry attacks rather than large-scale armour assaults.

Several Ts and a few IS-2 tanks were fielded, primarily dispersed amongst their infantry, thus making armoured engagements with US and UN forces rare from then on.

In summary, a US military survey concluded that there were, in all, tanks vs. American losses were somewhat greater. One of the last modern conflicts which saw the extensive combat deployment of the T was the Angolan Civil War.

In early , the Yugoslav People's Army possessed Ts, none of which were in active service. In , they were used as regular tanks to support Egyptian infantry, the tank was still in use by the October war.

Ts equipped many of the armies of Eastern European countries later forming the Warsaw Pact and the armies of other Soviet client-states elsewhere.

Ts were sporadically available in Afghanistan. During the Soviet-Afghan War , most of the Ts were fielded by the Sarandoy internal security forces.

Some were also kept in service with the Army of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. Although during decades of service time there are plenty of modifications that make some visual differences between original T and the Chinese T, and Factory had the ability to produce every single part of T, there was no single T that actually produced in China.

The production plan of the T in China was ended soon after once the PRC received TA main battle tanks from the Soviet Union and began to build the Type 59 tank, which was a licensed production version of TA.

Cuba received T tanks as military aid from the Soviet Union in Many T tanks first saw action in April during the Bay of Pigs Invasion with an unknown number destroyed or knocked out during the battle.

The tanks were based along with a company of Cuban mechanized infantry equipped with BTR armoured personnel carriers. The Cuban forces were mobilised to stop them.

As they approached Cassinga they were strafed by South African aircraft, which destroyed most of the BTRs and three of the Ts; a fourth T was disabled by an anti-tank mine buried in the road.

The remaining tank continued to engage the withdrawing South African paratroops from a hull down position until the battle was over. Over a hundred Cuban Ts and their respective crews remained in Angola as of the mid s.

Cypriot National Guard forces equipped with some 35 T tanks helped to support a coup by the Greek junta against President Archbishop Makarios on 15 July They also saw extensive action against Turkish forces during the Turkish invasion in July and August , with two major actions at Kioneli and at Kyrenia on 20 July By most of them had been stationed near Luanda, where their crews received training from Cuban instructors.

South Africa accused SWAPO of planning a major offensive to influence Namibia's pending general elections , but the tank crews remained stationary and even refrained from intervening in a series of renewed clashes later that year.

The Soviet and Finnish armies used Ts until the s; the former included the The Finnish tanks were captured directly from the Soviets or purchased from Germany's captured stocks.

In , both T Model tanks and SU self-propelled guns were photographed being used in Houthi takeover in Yemen.

In , pre-war development of a more advanced T tank was resumed, leading to the T The new tank had a turret design based on the T's, but featured a new hull with torsion-bar suspension and transversely mounted engine ; it had a lower profile than the T and was simpler to manufacture.

Between and of these tanks were built before the end of the war. A T tank monument in the East German city of Karl-Marx-Stadt Chemnitz became the target of a bomb-attack that inflicted minor damage on the vehicle and blew out nearby windows.

The bomber, Josef Kneifel , was sentenced to life imprisonment in Bautzen , but was released after a deal with the West German government in After German unification in , the tank was transferred to a museum in Ingolstadt.

Another such tank, mounted atop the monument to Soviet tank crews in Prague , was the focus of significant controversy.

The monument known locally as 'Saint Tank' was intended to represent Lt I. Goncharenko's T the first Soviet tank to enter Prague during the liberation of Czechoslovakia in May , but actually bore an IS-2M heavy tank.

To many in Prague, the tank was also a reminder of the Soviet invasion which ended the Prague Spring of Four Tankers and a Dog Czterej pancerni i pies , a very successful war-themed Polish television series of the s, adapted the novel of the same name by the Polish writer Janusz Przymanowski — , himself a People's Army of Poland volunteer.

The series made T tank number an icon of Polish popular culture. It was also shown in other Soviet-bloc countries where it was also well received, surprisingly even in the German Democratic Republic East Germany.

At the beginning of the 21st century reruns of the black and white series still manage to attract a large audience. In Budapest on 23 October , the protests in Hungary climaxed during the 50th anniversary of the Hungarian Revolution of Protesters managed to start an unarmed T tank which was part of a memorial exhibit, and used it in riots against police forces.

The tank drove a few hundred metres, then stopped in front of the police, causing no personal injury. There were two main production families of the T, each with subvariants.

The identification of T variants can be complicated. Turret castings, superficial details, and equipment differed between factories; new features were added in the middle of production runs, or retrofitted to older tanks; damaged tanks were rebuilt, sometimes with the addition of newer-model equipment and even new turrets.

The Red Army never had a consistent policy for naming the T Some Russian historians use different names: they refer to the first T as the T Model instead of , all Ts with the original turret and F gun as Model instead of Models and , and the hexagonal -turret T as Model instead of When the German Wehrmacht used captured Ts, it designated them Panzerkampfwagen T r , where the "r" stood for russisch "Russian".

The T was called pitkäputkinen Sotka "long-barreled Sotka". All T models are externally very similar. An enormous number of Ts and Ts were produced; the Soviets used them aggressively in campaigns in Europe and Asia, and they were distributed to the Soviets' allies all over the world.

Due to all three factors, there are hundreds of surviving Ts. Examples of this tank are in the collections of most significant military museums, and hundreds more serve as war memorials.

Many are in private ownership, and demilitarised working tanks change hands for U. Some still may serve in a second-line capacity in a number of Third World militaries, while others may find use in a civilian capacity, primarily in film-making.

In , a T Model was recovered that had spent 56 years at the bottom of a bog in Estonia. The anaerobic environment of the bog preserved the tank and ensured there were no signs of oil leakage, rust, or other significant water damage.

The engine was restored to full working order. Other significant surviving Ts include a Model at the U. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the Soviet medium tank. For other uses, see T34 disambiguation. Second World War Soviet medium tank. Type of Medium tank.

T tank. World War II tanks. List Category. Cold War tanks. Post—Cold War tanks. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Main article: Soviet invasion of Manchuria. Main article: T variants. Retrieved on 18 May Two ways to build a better mousetrap. Ohio: Ohio State University.

Operation Barbarossa and Germany's Defeat in the East. New York: Cambridge university press. Panzer Leader. London: Penguin Classics. Los Angeles: Pinnacle Books.

Engineers of Victory. New York: Random House. Retrieved Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. The Military Balance London: IISS.

Dunn, Jr Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. Paton Electric Welding Institute. Retrieved November 17, Hoover Press The Journal of Slavic Military Studies.

Hurlich" PDF. Mark Conrad, Red Army Handbook — Sutton Publishing. Archived from the original on The T in Combat. Jauza, Moscow.

Russian Tanks and Armored Vehicles — , Zenith Imprint Retrieved 15 November Hitler's Generals. Weidenfeld and Nicolson.

Hitler Moves East — Bantam Books, , p. Harding Mechanicsburg: Stackpole Books. Hitler and Stalin: Parallel Lives.

New York: Vintage Books World of Tanks. Retrieved 10 October Achtung Panzer. T Mythical Weapon. Guards Tank. London: Frank Cass.

Cuba: The International Dimension. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers. Jane's Armour and Artillery ed.

Macdonald and Jane's Publishers Ltd. Retrieved 25 June Armor of the Afghanistan War. Armor Concord Publications.

South Africa into Angola. Durban: Butterworths Publishers. Jacana Media Pty Ltd. The tankers then pick up Anya at the bus stop outside the camp.

They realize they are deep inside German-held territory and plot a course to bring them back to the Red Army's lines.

In the first town they come to, Nikolay and his hungry crew find badly needed fuel, new clothing, and fresh food. They burn their ragged prisoner clothes as they drive out of town.

The Germans scramble to figure out how to locate and recapture the T Before dawn, knowing that the Germans will be hunting them, Nikolay puts Anya out of their tank and tells her to make her way east on foot through the forests.

The Soviets drive on towards the mountain pass into Czechoslovakia. Jäger meanwhile takes to the sky in a Fieseler Storch to find Nikolay's T He then takes command of four German Panther tanks and sets up an ambush in a small town.

Still in the dark, the T enters the town and stumbles into the platoon of German tanks. Nikolay, through cunning, disposes of one Nazi tank.

He then sends out Volchok, armed only with a grenade, to take over one of the other Panzers. Driver Vasilyonok crashes their T through building walls before unexpectedly colliding with one of the other Panzers.

The Russians manually turn their damaged turret and get a shot off just as the Germans are about to fire.

Unfortunately Jäger has arrived on the scene and he lines up his Panther to destroy Nikolay. However, Volchok manages to fire a shell out of the German tank he just captured.

Jäger's tank is damaged, but he quickly disposes of the captured Panzer, badly wounding Volchok. Both Jäger and Nikolay emerge from the cupolas of their tanks.

Jäger throws down his glove, inviting Nikolay to a duel. Nikolay asks for 5 minutes to pick up his wounded comrade.

Both tanks then move outside the town and face off over a narrow bridge with high arches. Jäger fires one shot at the front of the T The German's shell does not penetrate because spare tracks add to the thickness of frontal armor.

Jäger begins lining up a second shot at the T's tracks. Nikolay aims for the weakest spot on the Panther: the driver's vision port.

Both shots hit their intended targets, and driver Vasilyonok rams the German tank hard, pushing it to the edge of the bridge.

The Panther is left hanging dangerously, and Jäger crawls out an escape hatch just as Nikolay clambers out of his T Jäger shouts for Nikolay to shoot him, but Nikolay offers his foe mercy.

Jäger extends his hand asking to help him to get out of the falling German tank. The two officers clasp hands. Nikolay pulls Jäger helping him to escape.

But then Jäger pulls Nikolay back. Nikolay is puzzled. Jäger is still fighting and his cunning smile confirmed that.

He wants to take Nikolay together with him. Then his smile changes to hopelessness. Jäger as a good soldier fought Nikolay till the very last second and now the fight is over and he can't win anymore.

But he prefers death than surrender. Jäger shakes Nikolay's hand in respect, and then lets go. Seconds later, Nikolay watches the German plunge to his death as his tank falls into the deep gorge below.

The crew reunites with Anya, whom Nikolay had told the night before to meet them in a large meadow outside the town.

On September 10, , it was announced that the Mars Media film company would start production of the high-budget war action drama T The shooting process of T started on 23 February and continued for 61 days.

For the picture, more than 25 scale sceneries were built, among them a Russian village and a prisoner of war camp.

Five military-historical consultants took part in the making of the film. In the film, several real T tanks were remade and updated for the film.

The film also showed several Nazi and Soviet cars, such as SD. The Panther tank with Zimmerit paste were made from T tanks distinguishable from the five large wheels.

Production designer Konstantin Pagutin spent a whole month building an entire village in a field near the village of Starlkowka, Kluj County, although the houses were destroyed at the beginning of the film, each one was designed in its own particular style, including hand-picked decorations and props.

The film was scheduled to be released on December 27, in cinemas, but instead the picture was released on January 1, , five days later than the planned date, distributors such as the Central Partnership and for rental converted to IMAX format.

T premiered at Comic-Con Russia , the most attended Russian festival of pop culture, which took place in Moscow from 4 to 7 in October and once again beat attendance records, was held by the Central Partnership company.

The film received mixed, mixed ratings. Some publications after the publication of the trailer [16] and the premiere of the film wrote about the similarity of the story with the plot of the Soviet war film The Lark film , noting that T cannot be considered a remake of The Lark : both the and the method of presentation, and the general outline of the narrative, and the ending of these two paintings are very different.

The critic notes the schematic plot and the weak study of the characters' characters. And then you remember what T is building up its genealogy: for Soviet films about the war.

In the best of them, the adversaries were not the Germans, as here, but the war as such. In Fate of a Man , Ivan's Childhood , The Cranes Are Flying , Ballad of a Soldier , and Trial on the Road , for all the differences, there was one conceptual similarity: they showed how a person retains his humanity through the desire for peace and memory about him.

The space T is arranged fundamentally different. It is given to a total never-ending war in which comforting simplicity reigns: there are ours, there are enemies, and enemies must be beaten to a victorious end.

They were aware of the global catastrophe, which was for our people the Second World War. In the latest domestic cinema war, one cannot find the author's point of view.

Instead of resorting to myth, mythologization of history. Instead of a brutal clever enemy - solid idiots.

Russischer Kriegsfilm, der einen eigenen Blick auf den Zweiten Weltkrieg wirft. Produktbeschreibung des Herstellers. Bild 1. Ein Panzer – Eine Crew –. Aber genau das ist es auch, was den Film so sehenswert macht. Hollywood-​Weltkriegsfilme hat man irgendwie über. Amerikanisches Helden-. T von FSK Alles über den Film erfahren. Im russischen Kriegsfilm T können ein paar sowjetische Kriegsgefangene im Zweiten Weltkrieg in einem Panzer aus Deutschland fliehen. Komplette Handlung. t34 film

Resistance from the military command and concerns about high production cost were finally overcome by anxieties about the poor performance of Soviet tanks in the Winter War in Finland, and the effectiveness of German tanks during the Battle of France.

The first production Ts were completed in September , completely replacing the production of the T, the BT series and the multi-turreted T medium tank at the KhPZ plant.

The T posed new challenges for the Soviet industry. It had heavier armour than any medium tank produced to date, and there were problems with defective armour plates.

No bureaucrat would approve production of the new gun, but Gorky and KhPZ started producing it anyway; official permission came from the State Defense Committee only after troops praised the weapon's performance in combat against the Germans.

Production of this first T series — the Model — totalled only about , [31] before production was switched to the Model , with the F gun, 9-RS radio set also installed on the SU , and even thicker armour.

Tanks were initially built at KhPZ N. After Germany's surprise invasion of the Soviet Union on 22 June Operation Barbarossa , the Wehrmacht 's rapid advances forced the evacuation and relocation of Soviet tank factories eastwards of the Ural Mountains , an undertaking of immense scale and haste that presented enormous logistic difficulties and was extremely punishing to the workers involved.

Soviet designers were aware of design deficiencies in the tank, but most of the desired remedies would have slowed tank production and so were not implemented: the only changes allowed on the production lines through to were those to make production simpler and cheaper.

New methods were developed for automated welding and hardening the armour plate, including innovations by Prof.

Evgeny Paton. Limited rubber supplies led to the adoption of all-steel, internally sprung road wheels, and a new clutch was added to an improved five-speed transmission and engine, improving reliability.

Over two years, the unit production cost of the T was reduced from , rubles in , to ,, and then to , In , T production had reached an average of 1, per month; this was the equivalent of three full-strength Panzer divisions.

The second-largest was Krasnoye Sormovo Factory N. Following the end of the war, a further 2, Ts were built prior to the end of Soviet production.

Under licence, production was restarted in Poland —55 and Czechoslovakia —58 , where 1, and 3, Ts were made, respectively, by The T had well-sloped armour, a relatively powerful engine and wide tracks.

Comparisons can be drawn between the T and the U. M4 Sherman tank. Both tanks were the backbone of the armoured units in their respective armies, both nations distributed these tanks to their allies, who also used them as the mainstay of their own armoured formations, and both were upgraded extensively and fitted with more powerful guns.

Both were designed for mobility and ease of manufacture and maintenance, sacrificing some performance for these goals.

Both chassis were used as the foundation for a variety of support vehicles, such as armour recovery vehicles, tank destroyers , and self-propelled artillery.

Both were an approximately even match for the standard German medium tank, the Panzer IV , though each of these three tanks had particular advantages and weaknesses compared with the other two.

Dimensions, road speed and engine horsepower of the various models did not vary significantly, except for the T, which was slower than the T The heavily sloped armour design made the tank better protected than the armour thickness alone would indicate.

The shape also saved weight by reducing the thickness required to achieve equal protection. In addition, close examination of the T at the Aberdeen Testing Ground showed that a variety of alloys were used in different portions of the armour on the T Despite these deficiencies, the T's armour proved problematic for the Germans in the initial stages of the war on the Eastern Front.

As the war went on, the T gradually lost some of its initial advantages. The examined hull showed cracks, spalling, and delamination due to the poor quality of the armour.

It was recommended to increase and improve the quality of welds and armour. The F The gun sights and range finding for the F main gun either the TMFD-7 or the PT [62] were rather crude, especially compared to those of their German adversaries, affecting accuracy and the ability to engage at long ranges.

Ts operated in a disorganized fashion with little coordination or else tended to clump together like a hen with its chicks.

Individual tank commanders lacked situational awareness due to the poor provision of vision devices and preoccupation with gunnery duties.

A tank platoon would seldom be capable of engaging three separate targets but would tend to focus on a single target selected by the platoon leader.

As a result, T platoons lost the greater firepower of three independently operating tanks. The Germans also noted that the T was very slow to find and engage targets, while their own tanks could typically get off three rounds for every one fired by the T As a result, the T was upgraded to the T model.

Tank commander A. Rodkin commented: "the tank could have dug the ground with it in the smallest ditch [filling the barrel with dirt].

If you fired it after that, the barrel would open up at the end like the petals of a flower", destroying the barrel.

Standard practice when moving the T cross-country in non-combat situations was to fully elevate the gun, or reverse the turret.

The T was powered by a Model V It used the coil-spring Christie suspension of the earlier BT-series tanks, using a "slack track" tread system with a rear-mounted drive sprocket and no system of return rollers for the upper run of track, but dispensed with the heavy and ineffective convertible drive.

During the winters of —42 and —43, the T had a marked advantage over German tanks through its ability to move over deep mud or snow—especially important in the USSR's twice-annual rasputitsa mud seasons—without bogging down.

In addition, its pneumatic engine starting system, fed from a compressed air cylinder mounted inside the tank's bow, remained reliable even in the coldest conditions.

The Panzer IV, its closest German equivalent at that time, used narrower track which tended to sink in such conditions.

The original 76mm armed T suffered from the unsatisfactory ergonomic layout of its crew compartment compared to the later 85mm variant.

The two-man turret crew arrangement required the commander to aim and fire the gun, an arrangement common to most Soviet tanks of the day.

The two-man turret was "cramped and inefficient" [70] and was inferior to the three-man commander, gunner, and loader turret crews of German Panzer III and Panzer IV tanks.

The Germans noted the T was very slow to find and engage targets while the Panzers could typically get off three rounds for every one fired by the T Early in the war, the commander fought at a further disadvantage; the forward-opening hatch and the lack of a turret cupola forced him to observe the battlefield through a single vision slit and traversable periscope.

Nicknamed pirozhok stuffed bun because of its characteristic shape, it was heavy and hard to open. The complaints of the crews urged the design group led by Alexander Morozov to switch in August [73] to using two hatches in the turret.

The loader also had a difficult job due to the lack of a turret basket a rotating floor that moves as the turret turns ; the same fault was present on all German tanks prior to the Panzer IV.

The floor under the T's turret was made up of ammunition stored in small metal boxes, covered by a rubber mat. There were nine ready rounds of ammunition stowed in racks on the sides of the fighting compartment.

Once these rounds had been used, the crew had to pull additional ammunition out of the floor boxes, leaving the floor littered with open bins and matting and reducing their performance.

The main weakness [of the two-man turret of a T Model ] is that it is very tight. The Americans couldn't understand how our tankers could fit inside during a winter when they wear sheepskin jackets.

The electrical mechanism for rotating the turret is very bad. The motor is weak, very overloaded and sparks horribly, as a result of which the device regulating the speed of the rotation burns out, and the teeth of the cogwheels break into pieces.

They recommend replacing it with a hydraulic or simply manual system. The T's wide track and good suspension gave it excellent cross-country performance.

Early in the tank's life, however, this advantage was greatly reduced by the numerous teething troubles the design displayed: a long road trip could be a lethal exercise for a T tank at the start of the war.

When in June , the 8th Mechanised Corps of D. Ryabyshev marched towards Dubno, the corps lost half of its vehicles. Bodnar, who was in combat in —42, recalled:.

From the point of view of operating them, the German armored machines were almost perfect, they broke down less often.

The technological equipment of their machines was better, the combat gear was worse. The T gearbox had four forward and one reverse gear, replaced by a five-speed box on the last of the Model s.

The tracks of early models were the most frequently repaired part. Maryevski later remembered:. The caterpillars used to break apart even without a bullet or shell hits.

When earth got stuck between the road wheels, the caterpillar, especially during a turn — strained to such an extent that the pins and tracks themselves couldn't hold out.

The examinations, performed at the Aberdeen Proving Ground, highlighted these early faults, which were in turn acknowledged in a Soviet report on the results of the testing:.

The Christie's suspension was tested a long time ago by the Americans and unconditionally rejected.

On our tanks, as a result of the poor steel on the springs, it very quickly [unclear word] and as a result clearance is noticeably reduced.

The deficiencies in our tracks from their viewpoint result from the lightness of their construction. They can easily be damaged by small-caliber and mortar rounds.

The pins are extremely poorly tempered and made of poor steel. As a result, they quickly wear and the track often breaks. Testing at Aberdeen also revealed that engines could grind to a halt from dust and sand ingestion, as the original "Pomon" air filter was almost totally ineffective and had an insufficient air-inflow capacity, starving the combustion chambers of oxygen, lowering compression, and thereby restricting the engine from operating at full capacity.

The testing at Aberdeen revealed other problems as well. The turret drive also suffered from poor reliability. The use of poorly machined, low quality steel side friction clutches and the T's outdated and poorly manufactured transmission meant frequent mechanical failure occurred and that they "create an inhuman harshness for the driver".

Judging by samples, Russians when producing tanks pay little attention to careful machining or the finishing and technology of small parts and components, which leads to the loss of the advantage what would otherwise accrue from what on the whole are well-designed tanks.

Despite the advantages of the use of diesel, the good contours of the tanks, thick armor, good and reliable armaments, the successful design of the tracks etc.

The quality of materials used were "ample for the job" with some being "better than those used in American tanks".

Protective coatings used to prevent wear of components were deemed "most effective". The diesel engine limited radio interference compared to American gasoline engines.

The testing also revealed the T 85s remarkable survivability. Its diesel engine minimised fire hazard compared to American engines.

In addition the escape hatches were considered "desirable" by US engineers,"one in hull over driver, two in the turret, one in the floor under the machine gunner" [81].

At the start of hostilities, the Red Army had T tanks and KV tanks [82] concentrated in five [83] of their twenty-nine mechanized corps.

The existence of the T and KV tanks proved a psychological shock to German soldiers, who had expected to face an inferior enemy.

The diary of Alfred Jodl seems to express surprise at the appearance of the T in Riga. Initially, the Wehrmacht had great difficulty destroying Ts in combat, as standard German anti-tank weaponry proved ineffective against its heavy, sloped armour.

Despite this, the Soviet corps equipped with these new tanks lost most of them within weeks. Mechanical breakdowns accounted for at least 50 percent of the tank losses in the summer fighting, and recovery or repair equipment was not to be found.

Other key factors diminishing the initial impact of Ts on the battlefield were the poor state of leadership , tank tactics , initial lack of radios in tanks, and crew training ; these factors were partially consequences of Stalin's purge of the Soviet officer corps in , reducing the army's efficiency and morale.

Typical crews went into combat with only basic military training plus 72 hours of classroom instruction; according to historian Steven Zaloga :.

The weakness of mechanized corps lay not in the design of their equipment, but rather in its poor mechanical state, the inadequate training of their crews, and the abysmal quality of Soviet military leadership in the first month of the war.

At the same time, the Soviets incrementally upgraded the T The Model featured increased armour on the turret and many simplified components.

The Model confusingly also introduced in had yet more armour, as well as increased fuel capacity and more ammunition storage.

Also added were an improved engine air filter and a new clutch mated to an improved and more reliable five-speed transmission. The T was essential in resisting the German summer offensive in , and executing the double encirclement manoeuver that cut off the German Sixth Army at Stalingrad in December The Sixth Army was surrounded, and eventually surrendered in February , a campaign widely regarded as the turning point of the war on the Eastern Front.

In , the Soviets formed Polish and Czechoslovak armies-in-exile, and these started to receive the T Model with a hexagonal turret.

Like the Soviet forces themselves, the Polish and Czechoslovak tank crews were sent into action quickly with little training, and suffered high casualties.

The campaign featured the largest tank battles in history. The high-water mark of the battle was the massive armour engagement at Prokhorovka , which began on 12 July, though the vast majority of armour losses on both sides were caused by artillery and mines, rather than tanks.

The Soviet high command's decision to focus on one cost-effective design, cutting costs and simplifying production wherever possible while only allowing relatively minor improvements, had proven to be an astute choice for the first two years of the war.

However, the battles in the summer of demonstrated that the Soviet tank crews struggled at longer ranges with the additional frontal armour applied to the later variants of the Panzer III and Panzer IV, and were unable to penetrate the frontal armour of the new German Panther or Tiger I tank at standard combat ranges without tungsten rounds, and had to rely on tactical skill through flanking maneuvers and combined arms.

The new tank, the T , was intended to be a universal model to replace both the T and the KV-1 heavy tank.

Not only were the weapons of German tanks improving, so was their armour. With the T canceled, the Soviet command made the decision to retool the factories to produce an improved version of the T Now the tank commander needed only to command aided by cupola and radio systems , leaving the operation of the gun to the gunner and the loader.

This made the turret, overall, a bigger target due to the three-man crew and bigger gun , but more resistant to enemy fire.

Production of the T began in January at Factory No. A T initially cost about 30 percent more to produce than a Model , at , rubles ; by this had been reduced to , rubles.

While it could not match the armour or weapons of the heavier Panther and Tiger tanks, its improved firepower made it much more effective than earlier models, and overall it was more cost-effective than the heaviest German tanks.

In comparison with the T program, the Germans instead chose an upgrade path based on the introduction of completely new, expensive, heavier, and more complex tanks, greatly slowing the growth of their tank production and aiding the Soviets in maintaining a substantial numerical superiority in tanks.

On 12 January , a column of Tiger IIs among other tanks from th Heavy Panzer Battalion were involved in a short-range engagement with T 85 tanks near the village of Lisow.

The German army often employed as much captured materiel as possible and Ts were not an exception. Fighting on the Eastern Front saw large numbers of Ts captured, though few were Ts.

These were designated by the Germans as Panzerkampfwagen T r. From late , captured Ts were transported to a German workshop for repairs and modification to German requirements.

In a local tank factory in Kharkov was used for this purpose. These were sometimes modified to German standards by the installation of a German commander's cupola and radio equipment.

The first captured Ts entered German service during the summer of In order to prevent recognition mistakes, large-dimension crosses or even swastikas were painted on the tanks, including on top of the turret, in order to prevent strikes from Axis aircraft.

Badly damaged tanks were either dug in as pillboxes or were used for testing and training purposes. Just after midnight on 9 August , though the terrain was believed by the Japanese to be impassable by armoured formations, the Soviet Union invaded Japanese-occupied Manchuria.

Red Army combined-arms forces achieved complete surprise and used a powerful, deep-penetrating attack in a classic double encirclement pattern, spearheaded by the T The opposing Japanese forces had been reduced as elite units had been drawn off to other fronts and the remaining forces were in the middle of a redeployment.

The Japanese tanks remaining to face them were all held in the rear and not used in combat; the Japanese had weak support from IJAAF forces, engineering, and communications.

Japanese forces were overwhelmed, though some put up resistance. The Japanese emperor transmitted a surrender order on 14 August, but the Kwangtung Army was not given a formal cease-fire until 17 August.

By the time the KPA were forced to withdraw from the south, about Ts and 74 SU assault guns had been lost or abandoned. Despite China's entry into the conflict in the following month, no major armour deployments were carried out by them, as the Chinese focus was on massed infantry attacks rather than large-scale armour assaults.

Several Ts and a few IS-2 tanks were fielded, primarily dispersed amongst their infantry, thus making armoured engagements with US and UN forces rare from then on.

In summary, a US military survey concluded that there were, in all, tanks vs. American losses were somewhat greater. One of the last modern conflicts which saw the extensive combat deployment of the T was the Angolan Civil War.

In early , the Yugoslav People's Army possessed Ts, none of which were in active service. In , they were used as regular tanks to support Egyptian infantry, the tank was still in use by the October war.

Ts equipped many of the armies of Eastern European countries later forming the Warsaw Pact and the armies of other Soviet client-states elsewhere.

Ts were sporadically available in Afghanistan. During the Soviet-Afghan War , most of the Ts were fielded by the Sarandoy internal security forces.

Some were also kept in service with the Army of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. Although during decades of service time there are plenty of modifications that make some visual differences between original T and the Chinese T, and Factory had the ability to produce every single part of T, there was no single T that actually produced in China.

The production plan of the T in China was ended soon after once the PRC received TA main battle tanks from the Soviet Union and began to build the Type 59 tank, which was a licensed production version of TA.

Cuba received T tanks as military aid from the Soviet Union in Many T tanks first saw action in April during the Bay of Pigs Invasion with an unknown number destroyed or knocked out during the battle.

The tanks were based along with a company of Cuban mechanized infantry equipped with BTR armoured personnel carriers.

The Cuban forces were mobilised to stop them. As they approached Cassinga they were strafed by South African aircraft, which destroyed most of the BTRs and three of the Ts; a fourth T was disabled by an anti-tank mine buried in the road.

The remaining tank continued to engage the withdrawing South African paratroops from a hull down position until the battle was over.

Over a hundred Cuban Ts and their respective crews remained in Angola as of the mid s. Cypriot National Guard forces equipped with some 35 T tanks helped to support a coup by the Greek junta against President Archbishop Makarios on 15 July They also saw extensive action against Turkish forces during the Turkish invasion in July and August , with two major actions at Kioneli and at Kyrenia on 20 July By most of them had been stationed near Luanda, where their crews received training from Cuban instructors.

South Africa accused SWAPO of planning a major offensive to influence Namibia's pending general elections , but the tank crews remained stationary and even refrained from intervening in a series of renewed clashes later that year.

The Soviet and Finnish armies used Ts until the s; the former included the The Finnish tanks were captured directly from the Soviets or purchased from Germany's captured stocks.

In , both T Model tanks and SU self-propelled guns were photographed being used in Houthi takeover in Yemen. In , pre-war development of a more advanced T tank was resumed, leading to the T The new tank had a turret design based on the T's, but featured a new hull with torsion-bar suspension and transversely mounted engine ; it had a lower profile than the T and was simpler to manufacture.

Between and of these tanks were built before the end of the war. A T tank monument in the East German city of Karl-Marx-Stadt Chemnitz became the target of a bomb-attack that inflicted minor damage on the vehicle and blew out nearby windows.

The bomber, Josef Kneifel , was sentenced to life imprisonment in Bautzen , but was released after a deal with the West German government in After German unification in , the tank was transferred to a museum in Ingolstadt.

Another such tank, mounted atop the monument to Soviet tank crews in Prague , was the focus of significant controversy. The monument known locally as 'Saint Tank' was intended to represent Lt I.

Goncharenko's T the first Soviet tank to enter Prague during the liberation of Czechoslovakia in May , but actually bore an IS-2M heavy tank.

To many in Prague, the tank was also a reminder of the Soviet invasion which ended the Prague Spring of Four Tankers and a Dog Czterej pancerni i pies , a very successful war-themed Polish television series of the s, adapted the novel of the same name by the Polish writer Janusz Przymanowski — , himself a People's Army of Poland volunteer.

The series made T tank number an icon of Polish popular culture. It was also shown in other Soviet-bloc countries where it was also well received, surprisingly even in the German Democratic Republic East Germany.

At the beginning of the 21st century reruns of the black and white series still manage to attract a large audience. In Budapest on 23 October , the protests in Hungary climaxed during the 50th anniversary of the Hungarian Revolution of Protesters managed to start an unarmed T tank which was part of a memorial exhibit, and used it in riots against police forces.

The tank drove a few hundred metres, then stopped in front of the police, causing no personal injury. There were two main production families of the T, each with subvariants.

The identification of T variants can be complicated. Turret castings, superficial details, and equipment differed between factories; new features were added in the middle of production runs, or retrofitted to older tanks; damaged tanks were rebuilt, sometimes with the addition of newer-model equipment and even new turrets.

The Red Army never had a consistent policy for naming the T Some Russian historians use different names: they refer to the first T as the T Model instead of , all Ts with the original turret and F gun as Model instead of Models and , and the hexagonal -turret T as Model instead of When the German Wehrmacht used captured Ts, it designated them Panzerkampfwagen T r , where the "r" stood for russisch "Russian".

The T was called pitkäputkinen Sotka "long-barreled Sotka". All T models are externally very similar. An enormous number of Ts and Ts were produced; the Soviets used them aggressively in campaigns in Europe and Asia, and they were distributed to the Soviets' allies all over the world.

Before dawn, knowing that the Germans will be hunting them, Nikolay puts Anya out of their tank and tells her to make her way east on foot through the forests.

The Soviets drive on towards the mountain pass into Czechoslovakia. Jäger meanwhile takes to the sky in a Fieseler Storch to find Nikolay's T He then takes command of four German Panther tanks and sets up an ambush in a small town.

Still in the dark, the T enters the town and stumbles into the platoon of German tanks. Nikolay, through cunning, disposes of one Nazi tank.

He then sends out Volchok, armed only with a grenade, to take over one of the other Panzers. Driver Vasilyonok crashes their T through building walls before unexpectedly colliding with one of the other Panzers.

The Russians manually turn their damaged turret and get a shot off just as the Germans are about to fire. Unfortunately Jäger has arrived on the scene and he lines up his Panther to destroy Nikolay.

However, Volchok manages to fire a shell out of the German tank he just captured. Jäger's tank is damaged, but he quickly disposes of the captured Panzer, badly wounding Volchok.

Both Jäger and Nikolay emerge from the cupolas of their tanks. Jäger throws down his glove, inviting Nikolay to a duel. Nikolay asks for 5 minutes to pick up his wounded comrade.

Both tanks then move outside the town and face off over a narrow bridge with high arches. Jäger fires one shot at the front of the T The German's shell does not penetrate because spare tracks add to the thickness of frontal armor.

Jäger begins lining up a second shot at the T's tracks. Nikolay aims for the weakest spot on the Panther: the driver's vision port.

Both shots hit their intended targets, and driver Vasilyonok rams the German tank hard, pushing it to the edge of the bridge.

The Panther is left hanging dangerously, and Jäger crawls out an escape hatch just as Nikolay clambers out of his T Jäger shouts for Nikolay to shoot him, but Nikolay offers his foe mercy.

Jäger extends his hand asking to help him to get out of the falling German tank. The two officers clasp hands.

Nikolay pulls Jäger helping him to escape. But then Jäger pulls Nikolay back. Nikolay is puzzled.

Jäger is still fighting and his cunning smile confirmed that. He wants to take Nikolay together with him. Then his smile changes to hopelessness.

Jäger as a good soldier fought Nikolay till the very last second and now the fight is over and he can't win anymore.

But he prefers death than surrender. Jäger shakes Nikolay's hand in respect, and then lets go. Seconds later, Nikolay watches the German plunge to his death as his tank falls into the deep gorge below.

The crew reunites with Anya, whom Nikolay had told the night before to meet them in a large meadow outside the town.

On September 10, , it was announced that the Mars Media film company would start production of the high-budget war action drama T The shooting process of T started on 23 February and continued for 61 days.

For the picture, more than 25 scale sceneries were built, among them a Russian village and a prisoner of war camp.

Five military-historical consultants took part in the making of the film. In the film, several real T tanks were remade and updated for the film.

The film also showed several Nazi and Soviet cars, such as SD. The Panther tank with Zimmerit paste were made from T tanks distinguishable from the five large wheels.

Production designer Konstantin Pagutin spent a whole month building an entire village in a field near the village of Starlkowka, Kluj County, although the houses were destroyed at the beginning of the film, each one was designed in its own particular style, including hand-picked decorations and props.

The film was scheduled to be released on December 27, in cinemas, but instead the picture was released on January 1, , five days later than the planned date, distributors such as the Central Partnership and for rental converted to IMAX format.

T premiered at Comic-Con Russia , the most attended Russian festival of pop culture, which took place in Moscow from 4 to 7 in October and once again beat attendance records, was held by the Central Partnership company.

The film received mixed, mixed ratings. Some publications after the publication of the trailer [16] and the premiere of the film wrote about the similarity of the story with the plot of the Soviet war film The Lark film , noting that T cannot be considered a remake of The Lark : both the and the method of presentation, and the general outline of the narrative, and the ending of these two paintings are very different.

The critic notes the schematic plot and the weak study of the characters' characters. And then you remember what T is building up its genealogy: for Soviet films about the war.

In the best of them, the adversaries were not the Germans, as here, but the war as such. In Fate of a Man , Ivan's Childhood , The Cranes Are Flying , Ballad of a Soldier , and Trial on the Road , for all the differences, there was one conceptual similarity: they showed how a person retains his humanity through the desire for peace and memory about him.

The space T is arranged fundamentally different. It is given to a total never-ending war in which comforting simplicity reigns: there are ours, there are enemies, and enemies must be beaten to a victorious end.

They were aware of the global catastrophe, which was for our people the Second World War. In the latest domestic cinema war, one cannot find the author's point of view.

Instead of resorting to myth, mythologization of history. Instead of a brutal clever enemy - solid idiots.

And the authors, undoubtedly, were inspired by the style of the battle quest: they use game techniques that are well-known to the modern viewer, and the wonderful feeling that the characters have several lives in stock accompanies the entire film.

And the actors here are not so much playing as playing: at the moments of the most implausible plot somersaults, a sly spark of cheerful excitement slips in their eyes.

Evgeny Bazhenov, a video blogger and columnist for Russian YouTube films, known by his pseudonym BadComedian criticized the film in its video review.

According to the observer, the film is historically unreliable and justifies Nazism, concentration camps in the film are shown harmless, and SS Klaus is shown as almost a positive character, which rather offends the memory of the heroes of the Great Patriotic War than perpetuates it.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The Russians destroy the first German tank. London: Cassell. Milsom, John Examples of this tank are in the collections of learn more here significant military museums, and hundreds more serve as war memorials. London: Frank Cass. InT production had reached an average of 1, per month; this was the equivalent bilder jungs three link Panzer divisions. Pavlov, I. RIA Novosti. Warfare by Other Means: South Africa in the s and s. Melde dich an, um einen Kommentar zu schreiben. In einer Kleinstadt versorgen sich here Geflüchteten zunächst mit Lebensmitteln, Zivilkleidung und Dieselkraftstoff und verbrennen vor der Weiterfahrt ihre Häftlingskleidung. Jetzt auf Amazon Prime und 2 weiteren Anbietern anschauen. Kino zinnowitz 12 [1]. DVD-Wunschliste von emmaranza. Home Filme T In Deutschland https://gatstuberg.se/serien-stream-to-app/charlie-says.php Österreich kam der Film am 6. Das schreit doch nach einem Weltkriegsfilm in Hochglanzoptik. Hacksaw Ridge. Videos Unterhaltung

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